McGowan CP, Skinner J, Biewener AA. Hind limb scaling of kangaroos and wallabies (superfamily Macropodoidea): implications for hopping performance, safety factor and elastic savings. J AnatJ AnatJ Anat. 2008;212 :153-63.Abstract
The aim of this study was to examine hind limb scaling of the musculoskeletal system in the Macropodoidea, the superfamily containing wallabies and kangaroos, to re-examine the effect of size on the locomotor mechanics and physiology of marsupial hopping. Morphometric musculoskeletal analyses were conducted of 15 species and skeletal specimens of 21 species spanning a size range from 0.8 to 80 kg that included representatives of 12 of the 16 extant genera of macropodoids. We found that unlike other groups, macropodoids are able to match force demands associated with increasing body size primarily through a combination of positive allometry in muscle area and muscle moment arms. Isometric scaling of primary hind limb bones suggests, however, that larger species experience relatively greater bone stresses. Muscle to tendon area ratios of the ankle extensors scale with strong positive allometry, indicating that peak tendon stresses also increase with increasing body size but to a lesser degree than previously reported. Consistent with previous morphological and experimental studies, large macropodoids are therefore better suited for elastic strain energy recovery but operate at lower safety factors, which likely poses an upper limit to body size. Scaling patterns for extant macropodoids suggest that extinct giant kangaroos (approximately 250 kg) were likely limited in locomotor capacity.
Moreno CA, Main RP, Biewener AA. Variability in forelimb bone strains during non-steady locomotor activities in goats. J Exp BiolJ Exp BiolJ Exp Biol. 2008;211 :1148-62.Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of non-steady locomotor activities on load predictability in two goat forelimb bones and to explore the degree to which bone curvature influences load predictability. We measured in vivo bone strains in the radius and metacarpus of juvenile goats performing a variety of natural behaviors in an outdoor arena and compared these strain magnitudes and loading patterns with those measured during steady-state treadmill locomotion. We sought to test two hypotheses: our first hypothesis expects an increase in the variability of strain magnitude and pattern during outdoor non-steady behavior when compared to treadmill locomotion. Our second hypothesis was that the curved radius experiences higher peak strains but less variability during non-steady activities than the straighter metacarpus. We found that unsteady, outdoor locomotion generally caused more variable strain patterns (consistent with the first hypothesis), but not more variable strain magnitudes, than treadmill locomotion in both bones. During outdoor locomotion, higher magnitude strain events in the radius showed more constrained loading patterns than in the metacarpus (consistent with the second hypothesis). In addition to the radius experiencing significantly greater bending strains compared to the straighter metacarpus, these results support the idea of a trade-off between increased predictability of loading pattern and increased bending-induced strain. Strain magnitudes recorded during both outdoor and treadmill locomotion showed a lognormal frequency distribution, but the outdoor bone strain distributions had a greater range because they included high magnitude loading events that did not occur during steady treadmill locomotion.
McGowan CP, Baudinette RV, Biewener AA. Differential design for hopping in two species of wallabies. Comp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr PhysiolComp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr PhysiolComp Biochem Physiol A Mol Integr Physiol. 2008;150 :151-8.Abstract
Hindlimb musculoskeletal anatomy and steady speed over ground hopping mechanics were compared in two species of macropod marsupials, tammar wallabies and yellow-footed rock wallabies (YFRW). These two species are relatively closely related and are of similar size and general body plan, yet they inhabit different environments with presumably different musculoskeletal demands. Tammar wallabies live in relatively flat, open habitat whereas yellow-footed rock wallabies inhabit steep cliff faces. The goal of this study was to explore musculoskeletal differences between tammar wallabies and yellow-footed rock wallabies and determine how these differences influence each species' hopping mechanics. We found the cross-sectional area of the combined ankle extensor tendons of yellow-footed rock wallabies was 13% greater than that of tammar wallabies. Both species experienced similar ankle joint moments during steady-speed hopping, however due to a lower mechanical advantage at this joint, tammar wallabies produced 26% more muscle force. Thus, during moderate speed hopping, yellow-footed rock wallabies operated with 38% higher tendon safety factors, while tammar wallabies were able to store 73% more elastic strain energy (2.18 J per leg vs. 1.26 J in YFRW). This likely reflects the differing demands of the environments inhabited by these two species, where selection for non-steady locomotor performance in rocky terrain likely requires trade-offs in locomotor economy.
Lee DV, McGuigan MP, Yoo EH, Biewener AA. Compliance, actuation, and work characteristics of the goat foreleg and hindleg during level, uphill, and downhill running. J Appl Physiol (1985)J Appl Physiol (1985)J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;104 :130-41.Abstract
We model the action of muscle-tendon system(s) about a given joint as a serial actuator and spring. By this technique, the experimental joint moment is imposed while the combined angular deflection of the actuator and spring are constrained to match the experimental joint angle throughout the stance duration. The same technique is applied to the radial leg (i.e., shoulder/hip-to-foot). The spring constant that minimizes total actuator work is considered optimal, and this minimum work is expressed as a fraction of total joint/radial leg work, yielding an actuation ratio (AR; 1 = pure actuation and 0 = pure compliance). To address work modulation, we determined the specific net work (SNW), the absolute value of net divided by total work. This ratio is unity when only positive or negative work is done and zero when equal energy is absorbed and returned. Our proximodistal predictions of joint function are supported during level and 15 degrees grade running. The greatest AR and SNW are found in the proximal leg joints (elbow and knee). The ankle joint is the principal spring of the hindleg and shows no significant change in SNW with grade, reflecting the true compliance of the common calcaneal tendon. The principal foreleg spring is the metacarpophalangeal joint. The observed pattern of proximal actuation and distal compliance, as well as the substantial SNW at proximal joints, minimal SNW at intermediate joints, and variable energy absorption at distal joints, may emerge as general principles in quadruped limb mechanics and help to inform the leg designs of highly capable running robots.
Higham TE, Biewener AA, Wakeling JM. Functional diversification within and between muscle synergists during locomotion. Biol LettBiol LettBiol Lett. 2008;4 :41-4.Abstract
Locomotion arises from the complex and coordinated function of limb muscles. Yet muscle function is dynamic over the course of a single stride and between strides for animals moving at different speeds or on variable terrain. While it is clear that motor unit recruitment can vary between and within muscles, we know little about how work is distributed within and between muscles under in vivo conditions. Here we show that the lateral gastrocnemius (LG) of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) performs considerably more work than its synergist, the medial gastrocnemius (MG) and that the proximal region of the MG (pMG) performs more work than the distal region (dMG). Positive work done by the LG was approximately twice that of the proximal MG when the birds walked at 0.5 ms -1, and four times when running at 2.0 m s-1. This is probably due to different moments at the knee, as well as differences in motor unit recruitment. The dMG performed less work than the pMG because its apparent dynamic stiffness was greater, and because it exhibited a greater recruitment of slow-twitch fibres. The greater compliance of the pMG leads to increased stretch of its fascicles at the onset of force, further enhancing force production. Our results demonstrate the capacity for functional diversity between and within muscle synergists, which increases with changes in gait and speed.
Higham TE, Biewener AA. Integration within and between muscles during terrestrial locomotion: effects of incline and speed. J Exp BiolJ Exp BiolJ Exp Biol. 2008;211 :2303-16.Abstract
Animals must continually adapt to varying locomotor demands when moving in their natural habitat. Despite the dynamic nature of locomotion, little is known about how multiple muscles, and different parts of a muscle, are functionally integrated as demand changes. In order to determine the extent to which synergist muscles are functionally heterogeneous, and whether this heterogeneity is altered with changes in demand, we examined the in vivo function of the lateral (LG) and medial (MG) gastrocnemius muscles of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) during locomotion on different inclines (level and uphill at 14 degrees ) and at different speeds (0.5 and 2.0 m s(-1)). We also quantified function in the proximal (pMG) and distal (dMG) regions of the MG to examine the extent to which a single muscle is heterogeneous. We used electromyography, sonomicrometry and tendon force buckles to quantify activation, length change and force patterns of both muscles, respectively. We show that the LG and MG exhibited an increase in force and stress with a change in gait and an increase in locomotor speed, but not with changes in incline. While the LG and MG exhibited similar levels of stress when walking at 0.5 m s(-1), stress in the LG was 1.8 times greater than in the MG when running at 2.0 m s(-1). Fascicle shortening increased with an increase in speed on both inclines for the LG, but only on the level for the pMG. Positive work performed by the LG exceeded that of the pMG and dMG for all conditions, and this difference was magnified when locomotor speed increased. Within the MG, the pMG shortened more, and at a faster rate than the dMG, resulting in a greater amount of positive work performed by the pMG. Mean spike amplitude of the electromyogram (EMG) bursts increased for all muscle locations with an increase in speed, but changes with incline were more variable. The functional differences between the LG and MG are likely due to the different moments each exerts at the knee, as well as differences in motor unit recruitment. The differences within the MG are likely due to motor unit recruitment differences, but also differences in architecture. Fascicles within the dMG insert into an extensive aponeurosis, which results in a higher apparent dynamic stiffness relative to fascicles operating within the pMG. On the level surface, the greater compliance of the pMG leads to increased stretch of its fascicles at the onset of force, further enhancing force production. Our results demonstrate the capacity for functional diversity between and within muscle synergists, which occur with changes in gait, speed and grade.
Carroll AM, Lee DV, Biewener AA. Differential muscle function between muscle synergists: long and lateral heads of the triceps in jumping and landing goats (Capra hircus). J Appl Physiol (1985)J Appl Physiol (1985)J Appl Physiol (1985). 2008;105 :1262-73.Abstract
We investigate how the biarticular long head and monoarticular lateral head of the triceps brachii function in goats (Capra hircus) during jumping and landing. Elbow moment and work were measured from high-speed video and ground reaction force (GRF) recordings. Muscle activation and strain were measured via electromyography and sonomicrometry, and muscle stress was estimated from elbow moment and by partitioning stress based on its relative strain rate. Elbow joint and muscle function were compared among three types of limb usage: jump take-off (lead limb), the step prior to jump take-off (lag limb), and landing. We predicted that the strain and work patterns in the monoarticular lateral head would follow the kinematics and work of the elbow more closely than would those of the biarticular long head. In general this prediction was supported. For instance, the lateral head stretched (5 +/- 2%; mean +/- SE) in the lead and lag limbs to absorb work during elbow flexion and joint work absorption, while the long head shortened (-7 +/- 1%) to produce work. During elbow extension, both muscles shortened by similar amounts (-10 +/- 2% long; -13 +/- 4% lateral) in the lead limb to produce work. Both triceps heads functioned similarly in landing, stretching (13 +/- 3% in the long head and 19 +/- 5% in the lateral) to absorb energy. In general, the long head functioned to produce power at the shoulder and elbow, while the lateral head functioned to resist elbow flexion and absorb work, demonstrating that functional diversification can arise between mono- and biarticular muscle agonists operating at the same joint.
Berg AM, Biewener AA. Kinematics and power requirements of ascending and descending flight in the pigeon (Columba livia). J Exp BiolJ Exp BiolJ Exp Biol. 2008;211 :1120-30.Abstract
Ascending or descending locomotion involves a change in potential energy (PE) and a corresponding change in power requirement. We sought to test whether the mechanical power required for steady ascending or descending flight is a simple sum of the power required for level flight and the power necessary for potential energy change. Pigeons (Columba livia) were trained to fly at varying angles of ascent and descent (60 degrees , 30 degrees , 0 degrees , -30 degrees , -60 degrees ), and were recorded using high-speed video. Detailed three-dimensional kinematics were obtained from the recordings, allowing analysis of wing movement. Aerodynamic forces and power requirements were then estimated from kinematic data. As expected, ;PE flight power' increased significantly with angle of flight (0.234 W deg.(-1)), though there appeared to be a limit on the amount of PE that the birds could gain or dissipate per wingbeat. We found that the total power output for flight at various angles was not different from the sum of power required for level flight and the PE rate of change for a given angle, except for the steep -60 degrees descent. The total power for steep descent was higher than this sum because of a higher induced power due to the bird's deceleration and slower flight velocity. Aerodynamic force estimates during mid-downstroke did not differ significantly in magnitude or orientation among flight angles. Pigeons flew fastest during -30 degrees flights (4.9+/-0.1 m s(-1)) and slowest at 60 degrees (2.9+/-0.1 m s(-1)). Although wingbeat frequency ranged from 6.1 to 9.6 Hz across trials, the variation was not significant across flight angles. Stroke plane angle was more horizontal, and the wing more protracted, for both +60 degrees and -60 degrees flights, compared with other flight path angles.
Tobalske BW, Warrick DR, Clark CJ, Powers DR, Hedrick TL, Hyder GA, Biewener AA. Three-dimensional kinematics of hummingbird flight. J Exp BiolJ Exp BiolJ Exp Biol. 2007;210 :2368-82.Abstract
Hummingbirds are specialized for hovering flight, and substantial research has explored this behavior. Forward flight is also important to hummingbirds, but the manner in which they perform forward flight is not well documented. Previous research suggests that hummingbirds increase flight velocity by simultaneously tilting their body angle and stroke-plane angle of the wings, without varying wingbeat frequency and upstroke: downstroke span ratio. We hypothesized that other wing kinematics besides stroke-plane angle would vary in hummingbirds. To test this, we used synchronized high-speed (500 Hz) video cameras and measured the three-dimensional wing and body kinematics of rufous hummingbirds (Selasphorus rufus, 3 g, N=5) as they flew at velocities of 0-12 m s(-1) in a wind tunnel. Consistent with earlier research, the angles of the body and the stroke plane changed with velocity, and the effect of velocity on wingbeat frequency was not significant. However, hummingbirds significantly altered other wing kinematics including chord angle, angle of attack, anatomical stroke-plane angle relative to their body, percent of wingbeat in downstroke, wingbeat amplitude, angular velocity of the wing, wingspan at mid-downstroke, and span ratio of the wingtips and wrists. This variation in bird-centered kinematics led to significant effects of flight velocity on the angle of attack of the wing and the area and angles of the global stroke planes during downstroke and upstroke. We provide new evidence that the paths of the wingtips and wrists change gradually but consistently with velocity, as in other bird species that possess pointed wings. Although hummingbirds flex their wings slightly at the wrist during upstroke, their average wingtip-span ratio of 93% revealed that they have kinematically ;rigid' wings compared with other avian species.
Richards CT, Biewener AA. Modulation of in vivo muscle power output during swimming in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). J Exp BiolJ Exp BiolJ Exp Biol. 2007;210 :3147-59.Abstract
The goal of this study is to explore how swimming animals produce the wide range of performance that is seen across their natural behaviors. In vivo recordings of plantaris longus muscle length change were obtained by sonomicrometry. Simultaneous with muscle length data, force measurements were obtained using a novel tendon buckle force transducer placed on the Achilles tendon of Xenopus laevis frogs during brief accelerating bursts of swimming. In vivo work loops revealed that the plantaris generates a variable amount of positive muscle work over a range of swimming cycle durations (from 0.23 to 0.76 s), resulting in a large range of cycle power output (from 2.32 to 74.17 W kg(-1) muscle). Cycle duration correlated negatively with cycle power, and cycle work correlated positively (varying as a function of peak cycle stress and, to a much lesser extent, fascicle strain amplitude). However, variation in cycle duration only contributed to 12% of variation in power, with cycle work accounting for the remaining 88%. Peak cycle stress and strain amplitude were also highly variable, yet peak stress was a much stronger predictor of cycle work than strain amplitude. Additionally, EMG intensity correlated positively with peak muscle stress (r(2)=0.53). Although the timing of muscle recruitment (EMG phase and EMG duty cycle) varied considerably within and among frogs, neither parameter correlated strongly with cycle power, cycle work, peak cycle stress or strain amplitude. These results suggest that relatively few parameters (cycle duration, peak cycle stress and strain amplitude) vary to permit a wide range of muscle power output, which allows anurans to swim over a large range of velocities and accelerations.
Nishikawa K, Biewener AA, Aerts P, Ahn AN, Chiel HJ, Daley MA, Daniel TL, Full RJ, Hale ME, Hedrick TL, et al. Neuromechanics: an integrative approach for understanding motor control. Integr Comp BiolIntegr Comp BiolIntegr Comp Biol. 2007;47 :16-54.Abstract
Neuromechanics seeks to understand how muscles, sense organs, motor pattern generators, and brain interact to produce coordinated movement, not only in complex terrain but also when confronted with unexpected perturbations. Applications of neuromechanics include ameliorating human health problems (including prosthesis design and restoration of movement following brain or spinal cord injury), as well as the design, actuation and control of mobile robots. In animals, coordinated movement emerges from the interplay among descending output from the central nervous system, sensory input from body and environment, muscle dynamics, and the emergent dynamics of the whole animal. The inevitable coupling between neural information processing and the emergent mechanical behavior of animals is a central theme of neuromechanics. Fundamentally, motor control involves a series of transformations of information, from brain and spinal cord to muscles to body, and back to brain. The control problem revolves around the specific transfer functions that describe each transformation. The transfer functions depend on the rules of organization and operation that determine the dynamic behavior of each subsystem (i.e., central processing, force generation, emergent dynamics, and sensory processing). In this review, we (1) consider the contributions of muscles, (2) sensory processing, and (3) central networks to motor control, (4) provide examples to illustrate the interplay among brain, muscles, sense organs and the environment in the control of movement, and (5) describe advances in both robotics and neuromechanics that have emerged from application of biological principles in robotic design. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that (1) intrinsic properties of muscle contribute to dynamic stability and control of movement, particularly immediately after perturbations; (2) proprioceptive feedback reinforces these intrinsic self-stabilizing properties of muscle; (3) control systems must contend with inevitable time delays that can simplify or complicate control; and (4) like most animals under a variety of circumstances, some robots use a trial and error process to tune central feedforward control to emergent body dynamics.
McGowan CP, Baudinette RV, Biewener AA. Modulation of proximal muscle function during level versus incline hopping in tammar wallabies (Macropus eugenii). J Exp BiolJ Exp BiolJ Exp Biol. 2007;210 :1255-65.Abstract
We examined the functional role of two major proximal leg extensor muscles of tammar wallabies during level and inclined hopping (12 degrees, 21.3% grade). Previous in vivo studies of hopping wallabies have revealed that, unlike certain avian bipeds, distal hindlimb muscles do not alter their force-length behavior to contribute positive work during incline hopping. This suggests that proximal muscles produce the increased mechanical work associated with moving up an incline. Based on relative size and architectural anatomy, we hypothesized that the biceps femoris (BF), primarily a hip extensor, and the vastus lateralis (VL), the main knee extensor, would exhibit changes in muscle strain and activation patterns consistent with increased work production during incline versus level hopping. Our results clearly support this hypothesis. The BF experienced similar activation patterns during level and incline hopping but net fascicle shortening increased (-0.5% for level hopping versus -4.2% for incline hopping) during stance when the muscle likely generated force. Unlike the BF, the VL experienced active net lengthening during stance, indicating that it absorbs energy during both level and incline hopping. However, during incline hopping, net lengthening was reduced (8.3% for level hopping versus 3.9% for incline hopping), suggesting that the amount of energy absorbed by the VL was reduced. Consequently, the changes in contractile behavior of these two muscles are consistent with a net production of work by the whole limb. A subsidiary aim of our study was to explore possible regional variation within the VL. Although there was slightly higher fascicle strain in the proximal VL compared with the distal VL, regional differences in strain were not significant, suggesting that the overall pattern of in vivo strain is fairly uniform throughout the muscle. Estimates of muscle work based on inverse dynamics calculations support the conclusion that both the BF and VL contribute to the additional work required for incline hopping. However, on a muscle mass-specific basis, these two muscles appear to contribute less than their share. This indicates that other hindlimb muscles, or possibly trunk and back muscles, must contribute substantial work during incline hopping.
Main RP, Biewener AA. Skeletal strain patterns and growth in the emu hindlimb during ontogeny. J Exp BiolJ Exp BiolJ Exp Biol. 2007;210 :2676-90.Abstract
Most studies examining changes in mechanical performance in animals across size have typically focused on inter-specific comparisons across large size ranges. Scale effects, however, can also have important consequences in vertebrates as they increase in size and mass during ontogeny. The goal of this study was to examine how growth and development in the emu (Dromaius novaehollandiae) hindlimb skeleton reflects the demands placed upon it by ontogenetic changes in locomotor mechanics and body mass. Bone strain patterns in the femur and tibiotarsus (TBT) were related to ontogenetic changes in limb kinematics, ground reaction forces, and ontogenetic scaling patterns of the cross-sectional bone geometry, curvature and mineral ash content over a 4.4-fold increase in leg length and 65-fold increase in mass. Although the distribution of principal and axial strains remained similar in both bones over the ontogenetic size range examined, principal strains on the cranial femur and caudal femur and TBT increased significantly during growth. The ontogenetic increase in principal strains in these bones was likely caused by isometry or only slight positive allometry in bone cross-sectional geometry during growth, while relative limb loading remained similar. The growth-related increase in bone strain magnitude was likely mitigated by increased bone mineralization and decreased curvature. Throughout most of ontogeny, shear strains dominated loading in both bones. This was reflected in the nearly circular cross-sectional geometry of the femur and TBT, suggesting selection for resistance to high torsional loads, as opposed to the more eccentric cross-sectional geometries often associated with the bending common to tetrapods with parasagittal limb orientations, for which in vivo bone strains have typically been measured to date.
Hedrick TL, Biewener AA. Low speed maneuvering flight of the rose-breasted cockatoo (Eolophus roseicapillus). I. Kinematic and neuromuscular control of turning. J Exp BiolJ Exp BiolJ Exp Biol. 2007;210 :1897-911.Abstract
Maneuvering flight has long been recognized as an important component of the natural behavior of many bird species, but has been the subject of little experimental work. Here we examine the kinematics and neuromuscular control of turning flight in the rose-breasted cockatoo Eolophus roseicapillus (N=6), testing predictions of maneuvering flight and control based on aerodynamic theory and prior kinematic and neuromuscular studies. Six cockatoos were trained to navigate between two perches placed in an L-shaped flight corridor, making a 90 degrees turn midway through each flight. Flights were recorded with three synchronized high-speed video cameras placed outside the corridor, allowing a three-dimensional reconstruction of wing and body kinematics through the turn. We simultaneously collected electromyography recordings from bilateral implants in the pectoralis, supracoracoideus, biceps brachii and extensor metacarpi radialis muscles. The cockatoos maneuvered using flapping, banked turns with an average turn radius of 0.92 m. The mean rate of change in heading during a complete wingbeat varied through the turn and was significantly correlated to roll angle at mid-downstroke. Changes in roll angle were found to include both within-wingbeat and among-wingbeat components that bear no direct relationship to one another. Within-wingbeat changes in roll were dominated by the inertial effects while among-wingbeat changes in roll were likely the result of both inertial and aerodynamic effects.
Hedrick TL, Usherwood JR, Biewener AA. Low speed maneuvering flight of the rose-breasted cockatoo (Eolophus roseicapillus). II. Inertial and aerodynamic reorientation. J Exp BiolJ Exp BiolJ Exp Biol. 2007;210 :1912-24.Abstract
The reconfigurable, flapping wings of birds allow for both inertial and aerodynamic modes of reorientation. We found evidence that both these modes play important roles in the low speed turning flight of the rose-breasted cockatoo Eolophus roseicapillus. Using three-dimensional kinematics recorded from six cockatoos making a 90 degrees turn in a flight corridor, we developed predictions of inertial and aerodynamic reorientation from estimates of wing moments of inertia and flapping arcs, and a blade-element aerodynamic model. The blade-element model successfully predicted weight support (predicted was 88+/-17% of observed, N=6) and centripetal force (predicted was 79+/-29% of observed, N=6) for the maneuvering cockatoos and provided a reasonable estimate of mechanical power. The estimated torque from the model was a significant predictor of roll acceleration (r(2)=0.55, P<0.00001), but greatly overestimated roll magnitude when applied with no roll damping. Non-dimensional roll damping coefficients of approximately -1.5, 2-6 times greater than those typical of airplane flight dynamics (approximately -0.45), were required to bring our estimates of reorientation due to aerodynamic torque back into conjunction with the measured changes in orientation. Our estimates of inertial reorientation were statistically significant predictors of the measured reorientation within wingbeats (r(2) from 0.2 to 0.37, P<0.0005). Components of both our inertial reorientation and aerodynamic torque estimates correlated, significantly, with asymmetries in the activation profile of four flight muscles: the pectoralis, supracoracoideus, biceps brachii and extensor metacarpi radialis (r(2) from 0.27 to 0.45, P<0.005). Thus, avian flight maneuvers rely on production of asymmetries throughout the flight apparatus rather than in a specific set of control or turning muscles.
Daley MA, Felix G, Biewener AA. Running stability is enhanced by a proximo-distal gradient in joint neuromechanical control. J Exp BiolJ Exp BiolJ Exp Biol. 2007;210 :383-94.Abstract
We currently know little about how animals achieve dynamic stability when running over uneven and unpredictable terrain, often characteristic of their natural environment. Here we investigate how limb and joint mechanics of an avian biped, the helmeted guinea fowl Numida meleagris, respond to an unexpected drop in terrain during running. In particular, we address how joint mechanics are coordinated to achieve whole limb dynamics. Based on muscle-tendon architecture and previous studies of steady and incline locomotion, we hypothesize a proximo-distal gradient in joint neuromechanical control. In this motor control strategy, (1) proximal muscles at the hip and knee joints are controlled primarily in a feedforward manner and exhibit load-insensitive mechanical performance, and (2) distal muscles at the ankle and tarsometatarso-phalangeal (TMP) joints are highly load-sensitive, due to intrinsic mechanical effects and rapid, higher gain proprioceptive feedback. Limb kinematics and kinetics during the unexpected perturbation reveal that limb retraction, controlled largely by the hip, remains similar to level running throughout the perturbed step, despite altered limb loading. Individual joints produce or absorb energy during both level and perturbed running steps, such that the net limb work depends on the balance of energy among the joints. The hip maintains the same mechanical role regardless of limb loading, whereas the ankle and TMP switch between spring-like or damping function depending on limb posture at ground contact. Initial knee angle sets limb posture and alters the balance of work among the joints, although the knee contributes little work itself. This distribution of joint function results in posture-dependent changes in work performance of the limb, which allow guinea fowl to rapidly produce or absorb energy in response to the perturbation. The results support the hypothesis that a proximo-distal gradient exists in limb neuromuscular performance and motor control. This control strategy allows limb cycling to remain constant, whereas limb posture, loading and energy performance are interdependent. We propose that this control strategy provides simple, rapid mechanisms for managing energy and controlling velocity when running over rough terrain.
Biewener AA, Daley MA. Unsteady locomotion: integrating muscle function with whole body dynamics and neuromuscular control. J Exp BiolJ Exp BiolJ Exp Biol. 2007;210 :2949-60.Abstract
By integrating studies of muscle function with analysis of whole body and limb dynamics, broader appreciation of neuromuscular function can be achieved. Ultimately, such studies need to address non-steady locomotor behaviors relevant to animals in their natural environments. When animals move slowly they likely rely on voluntary coordination of movement involving higher brain centers. However, when moving fast, their movements depend more strongly on responses controlled at more local levels. Our focus here is on control of fast-running locomotion. A key observation emerging from studies of steady level locomotion is that simple spring-mass dynamics, which help to economize energy expenditure, also apply to stabilization of unsteady running. Spring-mass dynamics apply to conditions that involve lateral impulsive perturbations, sudden changes in terrain height, and sudden changes in substrate stiffness or damping. Experimental investigation of unsteady locomotion is challenging, however, due to the variability inherent in such behaviors. Another emerging principle is that initial conditions associated with postural changes following a perturbation define different context-dependent stabilization responses. Distinct stabilization modes following a perturbation likely result from proximo-distal differences in limb muscle architecture, function and control strategy. Proximal muscles may be less sensitive to sudden perturbations and appear to operate, in such circumstances, under feed-forward control. In contrast, multiarticular distal muscles operate, via their tendons, to distribute energy among limb joints in a manner that also depends on the initial conditions of limb contact with the ground. Intrinsic properties of these distal muscle-tendon elements, in combination with limb and body dynamics, appear to provide rapid initial stabilizing mechanisms that are often consistent with spring-mass dynamics. These intrinsic mechanisms likely help to simplify the neural control task, in addition to compensating for delays inherent to subsequent force- and length-dependent neural feedback. Future work will benefit from integrative biomechanical approaches that employ a combination of modeling and experimental techniques to understand how the elegant interplay of intrinsic muscle properties, body dynamics and neural control allows animals to achieve stability and agility over a variety of conditions.
McGowan CP, Duarte HA, Main JB, Biewener AA. Effects of load carrying on metabolic cost and hindlimb muscle dynamics in guinea fowl (Numida meleagris). J Appl Physiol (1985)J Appl Physiol (1985)J Appl Physiol (1985). 2006;101 :1060-9.Abstract
The goal of this study was to test whether the contractile patterns of two major hindlimb extensors of guinea fowl are altered by load-carrying exercise. We hypothesized that changes in contractile pattern, specifically a decrease in muscle shortening velocity or enhanced stretch activation, would result in a reduction in locomotor energy cost relative to the load carried. We also anticipated that changes in kinematics would reflect underlying changes in muscle strain. Oxygen consumption, muscle activation intensity, and fascicle strain rate were measured over a range of speeds while animals ran unloaded vs. when they carried a trunk load equal to 22% of their body mass. Our results showed that loading produced no significant (P > 0.05) changes in kinematic patterns at any speed. In vivo muscle contractile strain patterns in the iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis and the medial head of the gastrocnemius showed a significant increase in active stretch early in stance (P < 0.01), but muscle fascicle shortening velocity was not significantly affected by load carrying. The rate of oxygen consumption increased by 17% (P < 0.01) during loaded conditions, equivalent to 77% of the relative increase in mass. Additionally, relative increases in EMG intensity (quantified as mean spike amplitude) indicated less than proportional recruitment, consistent with force enhancement via stretch activation, in the proximal iliotibialis lateralis pars postacetabularis; however, a greater than proportional increase in the medial gastrocnemius was observed. As a result, when averaged for the two muscles, EMG intensity increased in direct proportion to the fractional increase in load carried.
Main RP, Biewener AA. In vivo bone strain and ontogenetic growth patterns in relation to life-history strategies and performance in two vertebrate taxa: goats and emu. Physiol Biochem ZoolPhysiol Biochem ZoolPhysiol Biochem Zool. 2006;79 :57-72.Abstract
This study examined ontogenetic patterns of limb loading, bone strains, and relative changes in bone geometry to explore the relationship between in vivo mechanics and size-related changes in the limb skeleton of two vertebrate taxa. Despite maintaining similar relative limb loads during ontogeny, bone strain magnitudes in the goat radius and emu tibiotarsus generally increased. However, while the strain increases in the emu tibiotarsus were mostly insignificant, strains within the radii of adult goats were two to four times greater than in young goats. The disparity between ontogenetic strain increases in these taxa resulted from differences in ontogenetic scaling patterns of the cross-sectional bone geometry. While the cross-sectional and second moments of area scaled with negative allometry in the goat radius, these measures were not significantly different from isometry in the emu tibiotarsus. Although the juveniles of both taxa exhibited lower strains and higher safety factors than the adults, the radii of the young goats were more robust relative to the adult goats than were the tibiotarsi of the young compared with adult emu. Differences in ontogenetic growth and strain patterns in the limb bones examined likely result from different threat avoidance strategies and selection pressures in the juveniles of these two taxa.
Daley MA, Usherwood JR, Felix G, Biewener AA. Running over rough terrain: guinea fowl maintain dynamic stability despite a large unexpected change in substrate height. J Exp BiolJ Exp BiolJ Exp Biol. 2006;209 :171-87.Abstract
In the natural world, animals must routinely negotiate varied and unpredictable terrain. Yet, we know little about the locomotor strategies used by animals to accomplish this while maintaining dynamic stability. In this paper, we perturb the running of guinea fowl with an unexpected drop in substrate height (DeltaH). The drop is camouflaged to remove any visual cue about the upcoming change in terrain that would allow an anticipatory response. To maintain stability upon a sudden drop in substrate height and prevent a fall, the bird must compensate by dissipating energy or converting it to another form. The aim of this paper is to investigate the control strategies used by birds in this task. In particular, we assess the extent to which guinea fowl maintain body weight support and conservative spring-like body dynamics in the perturbed step. This will yield insight into how animals integrate mechanics and control to maintain dynamic stability in the face of real-world perturbations. Our results show that, despite altered body dynamics and a great deal of variability in the response, guinea fowl are quite successful in maintaining dynamic stability, as they stumbled only once (without falling) in the 19 unexpected perturbations. In contrast, when the birds could see the upcoming drop in terrain, they stumbled in 4 of 20 trials (20%, falling twice), and came to a complete stop in an additional 6 cases (30%). The bird's response to the unexpected perturbation fell into three general categories: (1) conversion of vertical energy (EV=EP+EKv) to horizontal kinetic energy (EKh), (2) absorption of EV through negative muscular work (-DeltaEcom), or (3) converting EP to vertical kinetic energy (EKv), effectively continuing the ballistic path of the animal's center of mass (COM) from the prior aerial phase. However, the mechanics that distinguish these categories actually occur along a continuum with varying degrees of body weight support and actuation by the limb, related to the magnitude and direction of the ground reaction force (GRF) impulse, respectively. In most cases, the muscles of the limb either produced or absorbed energy during the response, as indicated by net changes in COM energy (Ecom). The limb likely begins stance in a more retracted, extended position due to the 26 ms delay in ground contact relative to that anticipated by the bird. This could explain the diminished decelerating force during the first half of stance and the exchange between EP and EK during stance as the body vaults over the limb. The varying degree of weight support and energy absorption in the perturbed step suggests that variation in the initial limb configuration leads to different intrinsic dynamics and reflex action. Future investigation into the limb and muscle mechanics underlying these responses could yield further insight into the control mechanisms that allow such robust dynamic stability of running in the face of large, unexpected perturbations.